VII. Cities and Urban Land Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13–17%
A. Development and character of cities
1. Origin of cities; site and situation characteristics
2. Forces driving urbanization
3. Borchert’s epochs of urban transportation development
4. World cities and megacities
5. Suburbanization processes
B. Models of urban hierarchies: reasons for the distribution and size of cities
1. Gravity model
2. Christaller’s central place theory
3. Rank-size rule
4. Primate cities
C. Models of internal city structure and urban development: strengths and
limitations of models
1. Burgess concentric zone model
2. Hoyt sector model
3. Harris and Ullman multiple nuclei model
4. Galactic city model
5. Models of cities in Latin America, North Africa and the Middle East,
sub-Saharan Africa, East Asia, and South Asia
D. Built environment and social space
1. Types of residential buildings
2. Transportation and utility infrastructure
3. Political organization of urban areas
4. Urban planning and design (e.g., gated communities, New Urbanism,
and smart-growth policies)
5. Census data on urban ethnicity, gender, migration, and socioeconomic
6. Characteristics and types of edge cities: boomburgs, greenfields, uptowns

E. Contemporary urban issues
1. Housing and insurance discrimination, and access to food stores
2. Changing demographic, employment, and social structures
3. Uneven development, zones of abandonment, disamenity, and
4. Suburban sprawl and urban sustainability problems: land and energy use,
cost of expanding public education services, home financing and debt
5. Urban environmental issues: transportation, sanitation, air and water
quality, remediation of brownfields, and farmland protection



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